Phosphatidyl Serine (PS) plays an important role in the neurotransmitter systems of the brain. In 23 peer-reviewed studies, more than half of which were double-blind, PS was shown to have substantial benefits to learning and memory.
PS is not common in the food supply and has been used for
people over the age of 50 or for damaged brain cells due to disease, alcohol, drug use,
pollution, and for epilepsy. PS maintains nerve connections (synapses) in the brain, and
various higher mental activities. PS is important for nerve cell differentiation,
activation and renewal, neurotransmitter production and release, and maintaining
electrical current flows in and between cells.
Alpha-lipoic acid is a remarkable metabolic antioxidant readily transported through cellular membranes. I t helps recycle other antioxidants! What this means is that when vitamin E quenches lipid peroxidation a vitamin E radical is formed and that radical is reduced back to vitamin E by lipoic acid. It does a similar task with vitamin C, in turn Vitamin C can also reduce vitamin E.
Not only does lipoic acid play a role in lipid (fat) environments, but also in aqueous (water) environments where it can inactivate hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid, and nitric oxide. Lipoic acid acts as a catalyst and chelator. In Europe it has been used for detoxification of heavy metal poisoning, possible application in atherosclerosis, side effects of diabetes, oxidative stress, and it may exert a protective effect against the formation of cataracts.
Most recent research now indicates that Lipoic Acid prevents HIV replication. It has the ability to protect the genetic material, DNA, in the cell nucleus and protect NF kappa-B in the cytosol and most important it is able to bolster the cellular glutathione levels in the system and in lymphocytes!
Acetyl l-carnitine is incredible and the research papers keep coming out on it. It plays a key role in maintaining normal brain and nerve function during aging. It's so incredible it has been shown to maintain cellular membrane activity, and to restore age related membrane changes! Acetyl l-carnitine is an antioxidant- it scavenges super oxide anion radicals which can otherwise damage membrane lipids. It increases cerebral blood flow. It has a major effect on short term memory.
Acetyl l-carnitine effects major depression and changes in
the circadian hormonal rhythms,
Ginkgo biloba is an important herb that aids circulation to the brain. The American Botanical Council reports: "In Germany Ginkgo is an approved therapy for the treatment of memory loss in conditions such as Alzheimer's, ringing in the ears, dizziness, and poor circulation in the lower legs resulting in pain during walking (intermittent claudication.)"
Also, ginkgo aids in the "control of acute symptoms of altitude sickness and vascular reactivity to cold exposure, protective action in hypoxia (insufficient oxygen in the body); acute deafness related to the cochlea (part of the inner ear)."
It should not be used before elective surgery or persons with a bleeding disorder. It is important to check with your health provider when taking pharmaceutical drugs along with ginkgo.*